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Chapter 1  Compilation

1.1  Compiled and interpreted languages

People often describe programming languages as either compiled, which means that programs are translated into machine language and then executed by hardware, or interpreted, which means that programs are read and executed by a software interpreter. For example, C is considered a compiled language and Python is considered an interpreted language. But the distinction is not always clear-cut.

First, many languages can be either compiled or interpreted. For example, there are C interpreters and Python compilers. Second, there are languages like Java that use a hybrid approach, compiling programs into an intermediate language and then running the translated program in an interpreter. Java uses an intermediate language called Java bytecode, which is similar to machine language, but it is executed by a software interpreter, the Java virtual machine (JVM).

So being compiled or interpreted is not an intrinsic characteristic of a language; nevertheless, there are some general differences between compiled and interpreted languages.

1.2  Static types

Many interpreted languages support dynamic types, but compiled languages are usually limited to static types. In a statically-typed language, you can tell by looking at the program what type each variable refers to. In a dynamically-typed language, you don’t always know the type of a variable until the program is running. In general, “static” refers to things that happen at compile time, and “dynamic” refers to things that happen at run time.

For example, in Python you can write a function like this:

def add(x, y):
    return x + y

Looking at this code, you can’t tell what type x and y will refer to. At run time, this function might be called several times, each time with values with different types. Any values that support the addition operator will work; any other types will cause an exception or “run time error.”

In C you would write the same function like this:

int add(int x, int y) {
    return x + y;

The first line of the function includes “type declarations” for the parameters and the return value: x and y are declared to be integers, which means that we can check at compile time whether the addition operator is legal for this type (it is). The return value is also declared to be an integer.

Because of these declarations, when this function is called elsewhere in the program, the compiler can check whether the arguments provided have the right type, and whether the return value is used correctly.

These checks happen before the program starts executing, so errors can be found more quickly. More importantly, errors can be found in parts of the program that have never run. Furthermore, these checks don’t have to happen at run time, which is one of the reasons compiled languages generally run faster than interpreted languages.

Declaring types at compile time also saves space. In dynamic languages, variable names are stored in memory while the program runs, and they are often accessible by the program. For example, in Python the built-in function locals returns a dictionary that contains variable names and their values. Here’s an example in a Python interpreter:

>>> x = 5
>>> print locals()
{'x': 5, '__builtins__': <module '__builtin__' (built-in)>,
'__name__': '__main__', '__doc__': None, '__package__': None}

This shows that the name of the variable is stored in memory while the program is running (along with some other values that are part of the default run-time environment).

In compiled languages, variable names exist at compile-time but not at run time. The compiler chooses a location for each variable and records these locations as part of the compiled program.1 The location of a variable is called its “address”. At run time, the value of each variable is stored at its address, but the names of the variables are not stored at all (unless they are added by the compiler for purposes of debugging).

1.3  The compilation process

As a programmer, you should have a mental model of what happens during compilation. If you understand the process, it will help you interpret error messages, debug your code, and avoid common pitfalls.

The steps of compilation are:

  1. Preprocessing: C is one of several languages that include “preprocessing directives” that take effect before the program is compiled. For example, the #include directive causes the source code from another file to be inserted at the location of the directive.
  2. Parsing: During parsing, the compiler reads the source code and builds an internal representation of the program, called an “abstract syntax tree.” Errors detected during this step are generally syntax errors.
  3. Static checking: The compiler checks whether variables and values have the right type, whether functions are called with the right number and type of arguments, etc. Errors detected during this step are sometimes called “static semantic” errors.
  4. Code generation: The compiler reads the internal representation of the program and generates machine code or byte code.
  5. Linking: If the program uses values and functions defined in a library, the compiler has to find the appropriate library and include the required code.
  6. Optimization: At several points in the process, the compiler can transform the program to generate code that runs faster or uses less space. Most optimizations are simple changes that eliminate obvious waste, but some compilers perform sophisticated analyses and transformations.

Normally when you run gcc, it runs all of these steps and generates an executable file. For example, here is a minimal C program:

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
    printf("Hello World\n");

If you save this code in a file called hello.c, you can compile and run it like this:

$ gcc hello.c
$ ./a.out

By default, gcc stores the executable code in a file called a.out (which originally stood for “assembler output”). The second line runs the executable. The prefix ./ tells the shell to look for it in the current directory.

It is usually a good idea to use the -o flag to provide a better name for the executable:

$ gcc hello.c -o hello
$ ./hello

1.4  Object code

The -c flag tells gcc to compile the program and generate machine code, but not to link it or generate an executable:

$ gcc hello.c -c

The result is a file named hello.o, where the o stands for “object code”, which is the compiled program. Object code is not executable, but it can be linked into an executable.

The UNIX command nm reads an object file and generates information about the names it defines and uses. For example:

$ nm hello.o
0000000000000000 T main
                 U puts

This output indicates that hello.o defines the name main and uses a function named puts, which stands for “put string.” In this example, gcc performs an optimization by replacing printf, which is a large and complicated function, with puts, which is relatively simple.

You can control how much optimization gcc does with the -O flag. By default, it does very little optimization, which can make debugging easier. The option -O1 turns on the most common and safe optimizations. Higher numbers turn on additional optimizations that require longer compilation time.

In theory, optimization should not change the behavior of the program, other than to speed it up. But if your program has a subtle bug, you might find that optimization makes the bug appear or disappear. It is usually a good idea to turn off optimization while you are developing new code. Once the program is working and passing appropriate tests, you can turn on optimization and confirm that the tests still pass.

1.5  Assembly code

Similar to the -c flag, the -S flag tells gcc to compile the program and generate assembly code, which is basically a human-readable form of machine code.

$ gcc hello.c -S

The result is a file named hello.s, which might look something like this:

        .file        "hello.c"
        .section     .rodata
        .string      "Hello World"
        .globl       main
        .type        main, @function
        pushq %rbp
        .cfi_def_cfa_offset 16
        .cfi_offset 6, -16
        movq %rsp, %rbp
        .cfi_def_cfa_register 6
        movl $.LC0, %edi
        call puts
        movl $0, %eax
        popq %rbp
        .cfi_def_cfa 7, 8
        .size        main, .-main
        .ident       "GCC: (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.7.3-1ubuntu1) 4.7.3"
        .section     .note.GNU-stack,"",@progbits

gcc is usually configured to generate code for the machine you are running on, so for me it generates x86 assembly language, which runs on a wide variety of processors from Intel, AMD, and others. If you are running on a different architecture, you might see different code.

1.6  Preprocessing

Taking another step backward through the compilation process, you can use the -E flag to run the preprocessor only:

$ gcc hello.c -E

The result is the output from the preprocessor. In this example, it contains the included code from stdio.h, and all the files included from stdio.h, and all the files included from those files, and so on. On my machine, the total is more than 800 lines of code. Since almost every C program includes stdio.h, those 800 lines of code get compiled a lot. If, like many C programs, you also include stdlib.h, the result is more than 1800 lines of code.

1.7  Understanding errors

Now that we know the steps in the compilation process, it is easier to understand error messages. For example, if there is an error in a #include directive, you’ll get a message from the preprocessor:

hello.c:1:20: fatal error: stdioo.h: No such file or directory
compilation terminated.

If there’s a syntax error, you get a message from the compiler:

hello.c: In function 'main':
hello.c:6:1: error: expected ';' before '}' token

If you use a function that’s not defined in any of the standard libraries, you get a message from the linker:

/tmp/cc7iAUbN.o: In function `main':
hello.c:(.text+0xf): undefined reference to `printff'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

ld is the name of the UNIX linker, so named because “loading” is another step in the compilation process that is closely related to linking.

Once the program starts, C does very little run-time checking, so there are only a few run-time errors you are likely to see. If you divide by zero, or perform another illegal floating-point operation, you will get a “Floating point exception.” And if you try to read or write an incorrect location in memory, you will get a “Segmentation fault.”

This is a simplification; we will go into more detail later.

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